WEEK 41

SHOULD RUSSIA LOSE THE WORLD CUP?

[SPORTS – SHOULD RUSSIA LOSE THE WORLD CUP?]

FIFA_World_Cup_2018_Logo

(P1) Zbigniew Boniek, the chairman of the Polish football association, has said Russia should be stripped of hosting the 2018 World Cup because of the conflict with Ukraine.

(P2) “Hosting the World Cup in Russia is a disastrous mistake, it’s a country engaged in war, who invaded another country,” the former midfielder said in the RUN-UP to next week’s FIFA congress.

(P3) “In 2010 when FIFA chose Russia to host the World Cup the situation was totally different. But now when Russia is at war with Ukraine? There should be a CLAUSE in the contract between FIFA and the host country that enables the executive committee to strip that country in the event of a war. Or violating the charter of the United Nations,” Boniek said.

(P4) Russia was awarded the 2018 World Cup ahead of England and joint bids from Spain/Portugal and Netherlands/Belgium in December 2010. Since then, criticism has built over racist behaviors within Russia’s stadiums, and the country’s STANCE on gay rights.

(P5) The latter prompted LA Galaxy’s Robbie Rogers to say FIFA was “insane” to take the tournament to Russia and Qatar, two countries that have poor records on gay rights.

(P6) A report from a European ANTI-DISCRIMINATION network found over 200 incidents of racism within Russian domestic football over two years, prompting FIFA to say it was “concerned.”

(P7) The situation in Ukraine has also placed added focus on the decision to award the tournament to Russia. In July last year, British Member of Parliament Tracey Crouch called for Russia to be stripped of the tournament.

(P8) “I think Russia ought to be stripped now,” she said. “There’s so much political uncertainty. Football could be used to put pressure on president Putin to change some of his practices. Russia was seemingly a democratic country when they won the bid. There are now SANCTIONS against the country.”

(P9) The FIFA president, Sepp Blatter, met Vladimir Putin in Sochi last month and expressed his continued support for the 2018 World Cup. “Some people are wanting the World Cup to be taken away from Russia, but we will give one answer to this – we are involved in football and we will not allow politics to get in the way,” he said.

(P10) “Everything is going to plan and nothing will get in the way of Russia hosting the best ever World Cup.”

(P11) Boniek said he was unlikely to attend the qualifying draw in St Petersburg on 25 July, given his strong views over stripping Russia of the tournament.

(P12) “Should I pretend that nothing is happening, that everything is fine? Should I attend and listen to the music like there’s no war? I feel uncomfortable so I’m thinking of going to Sardinia for holidays at the time,” he said.

(P13) “I could possibly officially ask whether FIFA feels comfortable staging its biggest tournament in a country that is at war with Ukraine,” Boniek said. “But what will I gain asking that? Some papers will do interviews with me and that’s it. Does anyone really think FIFA would strip Russia of the World Cup?”

WORDS: 524

SOURCE: http://www.theguardian.com/football/2015/may/21/fifa-should-strip-russia-hosting-2018-world-cup-zbigniew-boniek

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Can international sports such as the Olympics and the World Cup ever really be separated from politics?
  3. Why do Zbigniew Boniek and Tracey Crouch believe that Russia should be stripped of the 2018 World Cup?
  4. Is it likely that Russia actually will be stripped of the 2018 World Cup?
  5. Is the World Cup a major focus of sports interest in your country?

EXPRESSIONS TO PRACTICE:

What do the following expressions mean? Practice using each expression in a sentence; extra points if you can use it in conversation.

  • Run-up
  • Anti-discrimination

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MEXICO’S CAR INDUSTRY REVS UP

[BUSINESS – MEXICO’S CAR INDUSTRY REVS UP]

Mexico Car Industry

(P1) Before I start, I must admit a personal interest. I have spent the past few months trying to buy a car here in Mexico, chatting to car dealers and friends about the best offers to be had.

(P2) My research has proved FRUITFUL. Not only have I been able to purchase some wheels, but in doing so I have learned a thing or two about one of Mexico’s most successful industries – one that experts say brings in more foreign currency for Mexico than its oil.

(P3) I took a flight to Nissan’s manufacturing site in Aguascalientes, an hour from Mexico City. Greeted by hugely proud employees in company jackets and baseball caps, I was BOMBARDED with statistics about the company’s success.

(P4) One in four cars made in Mexico is a Nissan. And one car is made every 38 seconds at the plants in Aguascalientes. EVIDENTLY Nissan is enjoying a good ride at the moment.

(P5) Nissan Mexicana’s vice-president of manufacturing, Armando Avila, says Mexico is a market that makes sense geographically. With the world’s largest car market to the north and all of South America below Mexico, it gives the company flexibility, he says.

(P6) But as well as geography, Mexico has a reputation for a value-for-money workforce.

(P7) According to the US-based Center for Automotive Research, WAGES can be as little as an eighth of what they are in the US. So is that what drives car brands to locate their factories in Mexico?

(P8) Eduardo Solis, the man in charge of Mexico’s Automotive Industry Association, does not think so.

(P9) “If these investments only came to Mexico for cheap labor, then we would have seen important investments in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Nicaragua,” he tells me. “Not one of these countries have one single automaker today.”

(P10) Mexico has done well at training its workforce, and not just in manual labor. Engineers graduating from Mexican universities are also highly skilled.

(P11) The numbers speak for themselves. So far this year, $5.5 billion dollars of investments in the Mexican automotive industry have been announced, including SUBSTANTIAL new investments by Toyota and Ford.

(P12) But it is not just the MASS-MARKET car makers who are building their businesses here.

(P13) Audi will be moving the production of its Q5 SUV from its HEADQUARTERS in Germany to its plant in Mexico.

(P14) But as is so often the case, there is a DOWNSIDE to all of this success. Amid the rising production figures – the industry grew by 10% last year – demand for cars here in Mexico is not increasing much.

(P15) Fewer than one in five cars made in Mexico is sold in Mexico. The rest are exported. In fact, at the Nissan plant we visited, 90% of the cars were being sent to the US. The other 10% to Brazil.

(P16) Analyst Armando Soto, of Kaso & Associates, says the DEMOGRAPHICS explain why.

(P17) “If you look at SPENDING POWER, more than 50% of the population finds it difficult to buy a new car if they don’t have an adequate source of financing,” he says. “But there’s another problem – we have a huge part of the labor force which works in the INFORMAL ECONOMY, and they can’t access financing either.”

(P18) The solution? SECOND-HAND cars it seems. But not just any old cars.

(P19) Since 2006, when then-President Vicente Fox legalized the imports of second-hand cars from countries such as the US, more than seven million cars have entered Mexico. In total, there are about 22 million used cars in the country.

(P20) The imported cars are what critics call garbage or junk cars. Often more than 10 years old and not ROADWORTHY in the US, they are sold in BULK at auction and come to Mexico for a NEW LEASE ON LIFE because there are fewer restrictions for cars on the roads here.

(P21) While some would say it gives poorer people a chance of car ownership, Eduardo Solis’ view is that they have hugely damaged domestic sales, and his organization has been fighting to TIGHTEN the rules over imported cars.

(P22) Back at the Nissan factory at Aguascalientes, production continues.

(P23) There may not be much chance to sell these cars on Mexican soil, but this is an industry that is REVVING UP.

WORDS: 724

SOURCE: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-32738725

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. What does Eduardo Solis think is more important to the success of the Mexican automotive industry – the cost of labor, or the quality of labor?
  3. Can most Mexican workers afford to buy Mexican cars? What kind of cars do they buy?
  4. Is Nissan actually a Mexican company?
  5. Where are most of the Nissan automobiles that are made in Mexico eventually sold?

EXPRESSIONS TO PRACTICE:

What do the following expressions mean? Practice using each expression in a sentence; extra points if you can use it in conversation.

  • Mass market
  • Spending power
  • Informal economy
  • New lease on life
  • Rev up

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CEO SALARIES DEFY GRAVITY

[OPINION – CEO SALARIES DEFY GRAVITY]

CEO Pay

(P1) How much money would it take to make you feel properly COMPENSATED for your work? I enjoy my job so much that, often, I feel like I’m GETTING AWAY WITH something by getting paid for it. Still, I like being valued for what I do, and I can imagine I would feel especially appreciated if someone wanted to give me $1 million a year.

(P2) Sounds pretty ridiculous, doesn’t it — a million bucks for just a year of work? Well, I can assure you, I get by on far, far less. I’m down there with all the rest of the solid middle class. I earn enough to finance a comfortable life but still have frequent days when I need to JUGGLE accounts and cut back to keep the bills paid. If I had an annual million, though, I don’t think I’d have any worries, other than figuring out how to spend such an ocean of cash.

(P3) Some people, though, look at $1 million as CHUMP CHANGE, a GRATUITY, an insult. Those people are corporate CEOs.

(P4) Five years ago, the EXORBITANT incomes of the men (and they are almost all men) at the top of the business world became something of a scandal, and Congress enacted new laws to put a ceiling on those STRATOSPHERIC salaries. Apparently, those laws did not work, according to a survey of the 200 highest-paid CEOs done for the New York Times. It is true that some of the most OUTLANDISH compensation practices have been eliminated, but that has not kept the pay of these corporate bosses from reaching new heights.

(P5) The average pay package for the top 200 chief executives is now $22.6 million, up by almost $2 million from last year.

(P6) But $22 million is PALTRY compared with what the guys at the very top receive for their work. Those gentlemen are lucky enough to head some of the companies owned by billionaire cable and communications MAGNATE John C. Malone. According to the New York Times, David M. Zaslav, the person Malone hired to run Discovery Communications, brings home a PAY DEAL worth $156 million. Michael T. Fries, who runs Malone’s Liberty Global cable and wireless group, is rewarded for his work with a $112 million deal. Lump Zaslav and Fries together with two other CEOs in the Malone empire, and yearly compensation for just these four men hits $350 million.

(P7) The list of chief executive officers RAKING IN tens of millions of dollars for 365 days of employment goes on and on. Yet, they look like middle management when compared with the top HEDGE FUND managers, whose yearly income can exceed $1 billion.

(P8) Of course, the typical SCHLUB working way down the ranks in any of these big companies is being paid a tiny fraction of what the CEOs get paid. The justification for this is that, though a company obviously needs lots of people lending a hand to make the business thrive, success really depends on the genius and leadership of the men at the top. They are, allegedly, an elite bunch — superstars who deserve to be richer than kings.

(P9) Sorry, but I don’t believe it. For every WIZARD OF INDUSTRY, such as Bill Gates or Steve Jobs, there are 100 CEOs who have merely CLAWED THEIR WAY TO THE TOP of an enterprise that would PUTTER along pretty well whether a particular individual were at the helm or not. I’d argue most CEOs are as interchangeable as managers at McDonald’s.

(P10) Certainly, some are better than others, but they are not millions of dollars more worthy and more special than the talented people slaving away down the chain of command, earning static five-figure salaries and living with the threat of layoffs.

(P11) The honest reason CEO incomes are so high is simple: Corporate CHIEFTAINS are a SELF-ADMIRING class of people who sit on one another’s BOARDS OF DIRECTORS and raise one another’s pay with little justification beyond their firm belief that they all deserve it. Are they embarrassed by grabbing such a big SLICE OF THE PIE while their employees struggle to get by? Not one tiny bit. They will happily accept more.

(P12) And more.

(P13) And more.

WORDS: 712

SOURCE: http://www.latimes.com/opinion/topoftheticket/la-na-tt-ceo-salaries-defy-gravity-20150520-story.html

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Is the author of this piece, David Horsey, impressed by the talents of most CEOs?
  3. What do you think a good CEO should be paid?
  4. Writers like Mr. Horsey often describe Bill Gates and Steve Jobs as exceptions to the average CEO. What made those two men special?
  5. How much money would it take to make you happy?

EXPRESSIONS TO PRACTICE:

What do the following expressions mean? Practice using each expression in a sentence; extra points if you can use it in conversation.

  • Get away with
  • Chump change
  • Rake in
  • Hedge fund
  • Wizard of industry
  • Claw your way to the top
  • Self-admiring
  • Board of Directors
  • Slice of the pie

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THE MOST EXTREME FISH ON EARTH

[ENVIRONMENT ★★ – THE MOST EXTREME FISH ON EARTH]

Killifish

(P1) There are male fish, and female fish, and these fish mate to create little fish, which inherit traits from both parents.

(P2) Over a few years, the little fish grow and grow, until they become old fish.

(P3) Fish breathe using their gills.

(P4) Fish also live in water. We take that one for granted – hence the phrase “A FISH OUT OF WATER,” meaning something weird or odd, something that shouldn’t exist.

(P5) Fish can’t live out of water.

(P6) And to get about, they swim, ideally in huge expanses of water, such as rivers, lakes, seas and oceans.

(P7) However, there is one group of fish that does not follow any of these rules.

(P8) Known as killifish, these small INNOCUOUS-looking creatures measure just a few inches long.

(P9) Many species are FLAMBOYANT and kept as pets in aquaria. But others look ordinary, and in their own way are among the oddest fish on the planet. A few can claim to be the world’s most extreme fish.

(P10) That’s because some killifish don’t REPRODUCE like other fish. In fact, one species doesn’t reproduce in the same way as any other vertebrate.

(P11) Killifish don’t grow old. They don’t mature like other fish, and many killifish species will live and die with a year. One species survives for less than three months, making it among the shortest-lived of all known vertebrates.

(P12) They have other ways of breathing, apart from using their gills.

(P13) And swimming isn’t really their thing. They prefer to live puddles and pools, and have evolved their whole life strategy to cope without water, rather than with it.

(P14) Some species can survive out of water for more than two months. They will leave it to go for a walk and they even hunt on land.

(P15) Some have even been found living in trees.

(P16) There are a number of killifish species living across Africa and South America. Most are adapted to living in places where water is scarce, or where water levels change DRASTICALLY from season to season.

(P17) Some do live in larger bodies of water, but many survive in ISOLATED pools that can dry up.

(P18) That creates a FUNDAMENTAL challenge – how do the fish survive and reproduce when the water eventually runs out?

(P19) One major adaption, which different killifish species have independently evolved, is to live their whole lives within a single year, using a number of unique tricks.

(P20) During the wet season, when pools are full, the fish hatch. They quickly grow to maturity and start SPAWNING, which they keep doing until the pools start to dry. At that point all the fish perish.

(P21) This cycle of life can be so quick that one species, the turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri) of equatorial Africa, lives for an average of just 10 weeks.

(P22) But they leave behind eggs in the soil, and these eggs represent the entire surviving populations of killifish.

(P23) These eggs survive the dry season in a DORMANT state, buried in the soil until the following rainy season. The return of the rains causes eggs to hatch and the cycle begins anew.

(P24) To do this, different killifish are able to stopping growing as embryos, and then start again when conditions are right. And they can stop at different times during their development, delaying the growth of major organs, such their skulls, hearts and circulatory systems. They can then delay hatching for days, weeks or months.

(P25) Other killifish have evolved other extreme lifestyles.

(P26) The mangrove killifish (Kryptolebias marmoratus), for example, is a hermaphrodite, possessing both male and female sex organs. Other animals can do that.

(P27) But the mangrove killifish is the only known vertebrate hermaphrodite that can FERTILISE itself, producing genetically identical clones.

(P28) Most fish breathe with their gills, passing water over them to extract oxygen. The mangrove killifish, however, can also breathe through its skin.

(P29) That’s critical for the fish’s survival as mangrove killifish live in the most extreme habitat, within the mangrove forests of the West Atlantic, a tangle of thick tree roots and deep mud.

(P30) Decaying leaves from red mangrove trees sink into the mud, and are broken down by bacteria. They spew out NOXIOUS hydrogen sulphide gas, and the water contains little oxygen.

(P31) Other fish species live in mangrove swamps, but they usually move in and out as water conditions vary. Mangrove killifish spend their whole lives here. This water then disappears during the dry season, leaving the fish high and dry.

(P32) Some survive in diminishing pools, while others are left clinging to the mud or tree branches. Essentially, the fish have moved onto land as the water RECEDES, and survive by breathing air through their skin. They even excrete waste through their skin and tests have shown that mangrove killifish can survive out of water for up to 66 days.

(P33) The fish are so well adapted to life on land that they will lay their eggs on damp mud and occasionally FORAGE across the mud above the tide line.

(P34) They get around by PERCHING upright on their bellies, and then purposely WADDLE their bodies to explore their habitat.

(P35) They even use their tails to flip into the air.

(P36) Moving through the air in this way is particularly difficult for fish, as the environment is so ALIEN to them. Fish have bodies designed to move in more DENSE water that supports their body weight.

(P37) Killifish do it by first lying either in a PRONE position or on their sides. Then they lift their head, curling the body. Then they straighten their back, forcing their tail down and into the ground. They do it with such force that they turn their body into a missile, propelling it many body lengths into the air, before landing.

(P38) They can use this technique to hunt and pounce on other animals. In the lab they have been shown capable of hunting and capturing crickets, and can pluck insects from leaves high above themselves, before taking them back into the water to eat.

(P39) Extreme indeed.

WORDS: 1032

SOURCE: http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150519-the-most-extreme-fish-on-earth

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Why do you think that biologists are interested in unusual species like the killifish?
  3. People always think of fish and water together. How do killifish use water differently than other fish?
  4. How do mangrove killifish have babies?
  5. Is it possible to keep killifish as pets?

EXPRESSIONS TO PRACTICE:

What do the following expressions mean? Practice using each expression in a sentence; extra points if you can use it in conversation.

  • A fish out of water

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CHINA ILLEGALLY FISHING OFF COAST OF WEST AFRICA

[WORLD NEWS – CHINA ILLEGALLY FISHING OFF COAST OF WEST AFRICA]

Chinese Fishing

(P1) Chinese companies have been illegally fishing off the coast of West Africa, environmental campaign group Greenpeace said in a study Wednesday, at times sending incorrect location data suggesting they are as far away as Mexico or even on land.

(P2) The number of Chinese fishing boats operating in Africa has SOARED in recent decades, from just 13 in 1985 to 462 in 2013, the international environmental group said.

(P3) It found 114 cases of illegal fishing by such vessels over an eight-year period in the waters off Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. The boats were mostly operating without licences, or in PROHIBITED areas.

(P4) 60 cases involved vessels of the China National Fisheries Corporation (CNFC), a state-owned company charged with developing fishing in distant seas.

(P5) “While the Chinese government is starting to eliminate some of the most destructive fishing practices in its own waters, the LOOPHOLES in existing policies lead to a DOUBLE STANDARD in Africa,” Ahmed Diame, a representative of Greenpeace Africa, said in a statement.

(P6) The Chinese ships are “taking advantage of weak enforcement and supervision from local and Chinese authorities to the DETRIMENT of local fishermen and the environment,” said Rashid Kang, head of Greenpeace East Asia’s China ocean campaign.

(P7) “Unless the government REINS IN this element of ROGUE companies, they will seriously JEOPARDIZE what the Chinese government calls its MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL partnership with West Africa,” he added.

(P8) Chinese companies are increasingly looking abroad for resources, with fish no exception.

WORDS: 263

SOURCE: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/20/china-illegally-fishing-off-coast-of-west-africa-greenpeace-study-reveals

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Why would Chinese ships look for fish so far away from China?
  3. It seems to be getting harder to find fish for people to eat. Why might this be true?
  4. Why do Chinese ships choose to break the law off the coast of Africa, instead of the coast of the United States or Europe?
  5. Is good quality fish becoming more expensive to buy in your country?

EXPRESSIONS TO PRACTICE:

What do the following expressions mean? Practice using each expression in a sentence; extra points if you can use it in conversation.

  • Double standard
  • Rein in
  • Mutually beneficial

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HOW POWER CHANGES PEOPLE

[BUSINESS– HOW POWER CHANGES PEOPLE]

DONALD-TRUMP

(P1) Power INEVITABLY changes people — sometimes for the better, sometimes not.

(P2) It impresses us when we see CEOs share their fortunes with their employees and give back to the community in a big way. These acts of social responsibility and ACCOUNTABILITY are positive BY-PRODUCTS of power.

(P3) Sadly, though, this isn’t the only way people respond to power. Sometimes it can get DOWNRIGHT ugly.

(P4) “Being in a position of power relative to those around you certainly does change you — not necessarily in an evil way, but there is a definite shift in how you see things when you are in the DRIVER’S SEAT,” explains Columbia University professor Heidi Grant Halvorson in her book “No One Understands You And What To Do About It.”

(P5) Whenever you have control over resources others desire, you WIELD power, and there are many different ways you can process this:

(P6) The good

(P7) When you feel relatively powerless, you’re primarily concerned with holding on to what you’ve already got, resulting in more RISK-AVERSE thinking, Halvorson writes.

(P8) But when you feel powerful, you tend to think about THE BIGGER PICTURE in more creative ways. You’re more optimistic, SELF-ASSURED, and directed towards problem-solving and tackling tough challenges.

(P9) Research shows that feelings of power usually lead to better performance, especially when it comes to completing complex or difficult tasks that require persistence.

(P10) By contrast, the powerful are worse at completing MUNDANE, MENIAL tasks, usually because they feel the task is beneath them. This is why they tend to be more selective about the jobs they complete.

(P11) Powerful people are better at completing complex tasks for a few reasons. For one thing, they tend to feel responsible to the people they have power over. They’re also motivated because they feel more individually identifiable than someone without power, which often translates to wanting to set a good example for others.

(P12) Power also stimulates a part of the brain in the prefrontal cortex that psychologists refer to as the brain’s executive function. Studies have shown participants to be better able to control their attention, plan future behavior, and take goal-oriented actions after they are given power over the outcome of others.

(P13) Another great by-product of power is the RESILIENCE it gives you. Compared to the powerless, powerful people are slower to show that their WILLPOWER and energy have been DEPLETED, meaning they can keep working longer than the average person.

(P14) The bad

(P15) While being more optimistic and willing to take risks can result in bigger gains, this kind of thinking could also be interpreted as RECKLESS, depending on the risks taken.

(P16) Researchers from Columbia Business School, for example, found that the powerful not only prefer riskier business plans with bigger potential rewards, but are also more likely to “hit” during a game of blackjack and engage in unprotected sex.

(P17) When in a position of power, you’re more likely to focus on the potential payoff than risky behavior or the potential dangers, Halvorson explains. “If you aren’t a particularly good judge of when to take a risk, power can get you into big trouble.”

(P18) The ugly

(P19) A group of Berkeley researchers found a scientific connection between power and “jerkiness.”

(P20) In one of the Berkeley studies, drivers of HIGH-STATUS cars like Mercedes and BMWs CUT OFF other drivers 30% of the time, compared to only 7% for the lowest-status cars. They also failed to YIELD to pedestrians almost half the time.

(P21) Another study proved powerful people are indeed more likely to take candy from a baby. When given permission to take sweets intended for children down the hall, college students who saw themselves as having high socioeconomic status took about twice as much candy as the poorer participants.

(P22) The researchers believe power has a somewhat DEHUMANIZING effect on people, and the powerful are more self-focused and less empathetic.

(P23) In fact, MRI studies of the brain indicate that people who feel powerful show far less motor resonance, which allows you to imagine things from the perspective of others, than the relatively powerless.

(P24) “It’s not so much that (powerful people) think they are better than you as it is that they simply do not think about you at all,” Halvorson writes.

(P25) Interestingly, this isn’t only true of the notoriously rich and famous. It happens to anyone when they feel a sense of power, if only for a moment.

WORDS: 745

SOURCE: http://www.businessinsider.com/how-power-changes-people-2015-5

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Have you ever known anyone who was powerful? Did they behave well or badly?
  3. Are you a risk-taker, or are you risk-averse?
  4. What powerful person do you admire? What powerful person do you not admire?
  5. What is the connection between power and inconsiderate driving?

EXPRESSIONS TO PRACTICE:

What do the following expressions mean? Practice using each expression in a sentence; extra points if you can use it in conversation.

  • By-products
  • Driver’s seat
  • The big picture
  • Self-assured
  • High-status
  • Cut off

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