High-Altitude Flying: What You Need to Know

[Jobs, Travel ★★★]

high_altitude_flying

(P1) The pilots of a Learjet 36 cruising high over Cleveland Center’s airspace are fighting a desperate battle for survival, but they don’t realize it. Suffering the effects of extreme hypoxia in the thin air at 32,000 feet, the copilot is passed out. The captain in the left seat is barely hanging on. Most chilling about the ATC recording of the 2006 incident is that the crew in all probability survived only by a chance of fate. The copilot, slumped unconscious with his arms swinging uncontrollably, continuously keys the microphone, alerting the Cleveland Center controller on duty that something is wrong.

(P2) When the controller queried the Learjet, the barely conscious captain sounded extremely drunk. By then the copilot’s convulsions had nudged the control lever, disconnecting the autopilot and initiating a climb. The captain, dimly aware of a problem but not aware of the urgent need to don his oxygen mask, declared an emergency.

“Unable to maintain altitude. Unable to maintain airspeed. Unable to maintain heading,” the pilot radios in slow, stuttered speech. “Other than that,” he wrongly adds, “everything A-OK.”

(P3) It was a second controller on duty who heard the exchange and recognized the symptoms of hypoxia. She instructed her colleague to tell the Learjet to descend immediately. Upon reaching a more oxygen-rich altitude of 11,000 feet, the pilots are suddenly both fully alert.

(P4) No amount of hypoxia awareness training can ensure you won’t succumb to the effects of a lack of oxygen in the bloodstream. The speed of hypoxia onset varies by individual. At 45,000 feet in a rapid decompression, on average you will have less than 12 seconds to respond.

(P5) Hypoxia Symptoms

The following is a partial list of potential signs and symptoms associated with a lack of oxygen concentration in the blood. Specific symptoms will vary by individual, making high-altitude physiology training a good idea for pilots who will travel into the flight levels.

  • Increased breathing rate
  • Increased heart rate
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Sweating
  • Drowsiness
  • Blue lips and fingernails
  • Poor coordination
  • Impaired judgment
  • Loss of consciousness

WORDS: 339

SOURCE: http://www.flyingmag.com/high-altitude-flying-what-you-need-to-know

VOCABULARY: hypoxia, queried, convulsions, stuttered, succumb, decompression

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Why do you think it’s important for pilots to be highly trained and retrained?
  3. Do you think the pilot and copilot are lucky to be alive? Why?
  4. Have you ever experienced any of the hypoxia symptoms for other reasons? If so, describe a time you did.

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. How high in altitude were the pilots of the Learjet 36?
  2. According to the article, both the pilot and copilot were unconscious for a short period of time. (T or F)
  3. Even though the pilot was barely hanging on and not able to put on his oxygen mask, he was still able to __________________________.
  4. No matter what, every person experiences symptoms of hypoxia at the same rate of time. (T or F)
  5. One of the many symptoms of hypoxia is sleepiness. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • passed out (P1)
  • barely hanging on (P1)
  • don his oxygen mask (2)
  • oxygen-rich (P3)
  • hypoxia onset (P4)

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Image source: Getty Images by “unknown” http://www.flyingmag.com/sites/flyingmag.com/files/styles/medium_1x_/public/high_altitude_flying.jpg?itok=Gxz9SmzJ

JetBlue To Test Ab Initio Training Program

[Jobs, Training ★★★]

jetblue-big

(P1) JetBlue Airways is considering a new training program to get pilots ready for the copilot and captain’s seats. The program would take pilot candidates with no previous experience and train them to become competent airline pilots. Rather than training in smaller, cost-effecting airplanes, most of the flight training would focus on airline-related tasks, such as emergency decision-making, coordinating crews, and simulator training.

(P2) Under the current rules, the pilots would still need to reach the required 1,500 hours before they could fly airplanes carrying passengers.

(P3) The program has been named Gateway 7 and is slated to start next year. Only a small number of pilot candidates, who would go through a rigorous screening process, would be accepted into the test program. After going through a JetBlue ground school, the candidates would go to a partner company for flight training. Pilot candidates would pay for their own training and, if successful, would be qualified to join the airline in 2020. The FAA is currently evaluating the program.

(P4) The trial program would train pilots slated to fly the 100-passenger Embraer E190. Once the trail program is complete, JetBlue will evaluate whether the training program could be a viable option for its Airbus fleet.

WORDS: 201

SOURCE: http://www.flyingmag.com/training/learn-fly/jetblue-test-ab-initio-training-program

VOCABULARY: competent, slated, rigorous, ground school, viable

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. In your opinion, what are some of the advantages of this new training program?
  3. In your opinion, what are some of the disadvantages of this new training program?
  4. Do you think the required 1500 flying hours is adequate to start flying planes with passengers? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. The new training program that JetBlue wants to use is for candidates with some prior experience. (T or F)
  2. A majority of the new pilot training will be centered around __________________.
  3. The future pilots in this program will not have to pay for the training out of their own pockets. (T or F)
  4. JetBlue is still waiting on the approval from the FAA to implement the program. (T or F)
  5. Which aircraft will the newly trained pilots operate?

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • ad initio (title)
  • cost-effecting airplanes (P1)
  • under the current rules (P2)
  • trial program (P4)

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Image source: by “unknown” http://www.flyingmag.com/training/learn-fly/jetblue-test-ab-initio-training-program

New Flight Plan Format to Take Effect in January

[Jobs, Travel ★★★]

icao_flight_plan

(P1) The FAA is adopting the ICAO format for domestic flight plans starting sometime early next year, likely by the end of January. What this means is that you will need to provide additional information when filing flight plans, using the format previously used for international flights. Pilots are encouraged to use the ICAO format for all flights now to ensure a smooth transition once the domestic flight plan format is eliminated.

(P2) There are many similarities between the former domestic FAA flight plan format and ICAO. However, when it comes to aircraft equipment suffixes, there are some major differences. The ICAO format requires a wake turbulence category based on the aircraft. ICAO also has more specific coding for transponder equipment, which specifies ADS-B Out and In, for example, and avionics installations, which includes several additional codes for avionics capabilities such as LPV approaches. The more detailed codes can be included to provide more information for ATC, but they are not required. The ICAO format also includes codes for emergency equipment, which will be helpful in search and rescue situations.

(P3) Another major difference with the new flight plan form is the format for the departure or destination airport if the airport identifier is not in the standard four-letter format. If one of your planned airports does not have a four-letter code, you need to enter ZZZZ in the departure or destination section of ICAO form and specify the identifier in Field 18 of the form.

(p4) The switch was originally set to take effect in October of last year, but aviation advocate groups convinced the FAA to delay the transition. In addition to providing pilots and flight plan provider services more time to get used to the format, the training course required for the SFAR area in Washington, D.C., needed to be revised based on the new ICAO format.

WORDS: 306

SOURCE: http://www.flyingmag.com/new-flight-plan-format-to-take-effect-in-january

VOCABULARY: adopting, aircraft equipment suffixes, wake turbulence, avionics, switch, advocate

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. In your opinion, do you think this change will have a positive or negative effect on pilots? Why?
  3. In your opinion, do the aircraft equipment suffixes make a pilot’s job easier? Why or why not?
  4. Do you agree or disagree with the FAA adopting ICAO format for domestic flights? Why?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. When will the FAA make the change to the ICAO format for domestic flights?
  2. According to the article, pilots are currently influenced to use the ICAO format during domestic flights. (T or F)
  3.  The ICAO format will assist in ___________ and ____________ operations.
  4. If an airport doesn’t have a 4-letter identifier under the new flight plan, what code must be entered?
  5. In the beginning, this change was suppose to take effect in _______________.

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • likely by the end of January (P1)
  • smooth transition (P1)
  • major differences (P2)
  • search and rescue situations (P2)
  • set to take effect (P4)
  • used to (P4)

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Image source: YouTube/Flight Service 1800wxbrief http://www.flyingmag.com/new-flight-plan-format-to-take-effect-in-january

The world needs 69 million more teachers

[Jobs ★★]

teaching-jobs

(P1) The world needs 69 million teachers by 2030. The United Nations (UN) promised that every child would go to school. Finding those teachers needs a lot of work. The biggest need is in Africa and Asia. There are not enough teachers. Over 263 million children do not go to school. Around 25 million of these might never go.

(P2) There are not enough teachers in countries that are growing because there are more children. The UN says things will get worse if we don’t act now. In some countries, only 60 percent of teachers are trained. In other countries, there are over 100 children in one classroom. This has been a problem for many years.

WORDS: 115

SOURCE: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/1610/161006-teachers-0.html

VOCABULARY: promised, might, worse, trained, classroom

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Would you like to be a teacher? Why or why not?
  3. Are there a lot of children in your country that don’t go to school? If so, why?
  4. Are teachers in your country paid well? If no, should they be paid better?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. How many teachers does the world need?
  2. Which areas of the world have the biggest need for teachers?
  3. How many children in the world don’t go to school?
  4. Some countries have more than 100 kids in a class. (T or F)
  5. Too many children in a classroom has been a problem for many years. (T or F).

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • by 2030 (P1)
  • needs a lot of work (P1)
  • not enough teachers (P1)
  • act now (P2)
  • over 100 children (P2)

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Image source: by “unknown” https://camblyblog.files.wordpress.com/2016/10/39b54-teaching2bjobs2bin2buk.jpg

Company pays its workers to sleep

[Jobs ★]

sleep_pic_cover

(P1) A company is paying workers to sleep. Employees will get $300 a year extra if they sleep more than seven hours a night. The company said workers will work better if they sleep well. The company will then do better. Workers record their sleep using a wrist monitor. They can also write down how long they sleep every night.

(P2) Not sleeping enough is bad for our job. The average U.S. worker loses 11.3 working days of work a year because of not sleeping enough. The US economy loses $63.2 billion a year. A European study found that workers who sleep less than seven hours per night do a lot less work. People who sleep eight hours do more work.

WORDS: 119

SOURCE: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/1607/160702-sleep-0.html

VOCABULARY: extra, record, wrist monitor, average, enough, study

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Do you get enough sleep? Why or why not?
  3. Would you like to get paid to sleep? Why or why not?
  4. Could you sleep wearing a wrist monitor? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. How much more pay will workers receive for sleeping?
  2. Which 2 ways can employees keep track of their sleep?
  3. Lack of sleep isn’t bad for working. (T or F)
  4. The research was done by a Chinese company. (T or F)
  5. The study suggests that people work better with 6-8 hours of sleep. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • more than seven hours a night (P1)
  • write down (P1)
  • not sleeping enough (p2)
  • per night (P2)

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Image source: by “unknown” https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/600×315/53/44/b2/5344b26444a819c39ef9d7597da7e520.jpg

Women wearing cosmetics are paid more

[Jobs ★★]

nikkie_tutorials_3354731b

(P1) Researchers have found a good reason why women take so long in the morning to get ready – they get paid more with makeup and nice hair. Sociologists said attractive people get paid 20 per cent more than “average” people. Attractive men and women usually earned more. A sociologist said: “For men, only about half of the effect of attractiveness is due to grooming.” She said we judge women more, so looks become more important to them.

(P2) The study was from universities in Chicago and California. Researchers looked at data from 14,000 people who spoke about their salary, job, education and other things. The interviewers also rated each person on how attractive they were. People are biased about beauty because of a ‘halo effect‘. People think someone who is attractive on the outside is also beautiful on the inside. This idea is not new.

WORDS: 143

SOURCE: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/1605/160523-cosmetics-4.html

VOCABULARY: sociologists, attractive, earned, effect, grooming, biased, halo effect

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Do you agree with the researchers and sociologists that women earn more money if they are attractive? Why or why not?
  3. Are people biased about beauty? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. Studies haven’t shown a good reason why woman take so long to get ready. (T or F)
  2. How much more do people get paid if they are attractive?
  3. How many people took part in the research?

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • Get ready  (P1)
  • Attractive on the outside is also beautiful on the inside (P2)

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Image source: by Nikkie Tutorials http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/11699216/PowerOfMakeup-My-makeup-isnt-your-business.-Stay-out-of-my-face.html

The $265,000 job that no one wants

[Jobs ★★]

osg-header

(P1) There is a doctor’s job in a small New Zealand town that no one wants. It pays US$265,000 a year. There is no weekend work, and houses in the area are cheap. The job is just four days a week, with 12 weeks’ holiday a year. The current doctor Alan Kenny is leaving. He cannot find a replacement. Four medical companies also could not find a replacement. Dr. Kenny thinks people want to live and work in the city and not in the countryside.

(P2) Last year, Dr. Kenny could not go on a family holiday because he could not find a doctor to replace him. He has been a doctor in the town for 30 years. He said he wouldn’t change his countryside life for city life. He wants to retire and he needs to give his patients to a younger doctor. He said his work keeps him busy. He loves his job. He said: “I would like to stay but I hit my head against a brick wall trying to attract doctors.”

WORDS: 173

SOURCE: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/1602/160226-doctors-1.html

VOCABULARY: replacement, countryside, retire, patients, attract

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. If you were a medical doctor, would you apply for this job? Why or why not?
  3. Do you prefer to live in the city or the countryside? Why?
  4. Have you ever traveled to New Zealand? If yes, describe your visit. If no, would you like to go there?
  5. Why do you think the doctor cannot find a replacement?

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES: What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • Family holiday (P2)
  • Hit my head against a brick wall (P2)

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Image source: by “unknown” http://www.familydoctor.co.nz/Images/osg-header.jpg