Conjunctions are words that link two sentences or phrases, giving them meaning and clarifying whatever context is being expressed. They are therefore essential building blocks that need to be taken seriously by anyone struggling with how to learn English grammar and how to improve their vocabulary.
We’ve put together a list of commonly used English conjunctions with real-life examples to help you understand how they work.
Learning grammar entails mastering the use of conjunctions to express yourself more clearly either when speaking or writing. And let’s be honest, conjunctions exist in all languages, so this won’t be a brand-new concept to you.
Without further ado, let’s just get into it. You can check how each word is pronounced on Google. Then, repeat it out loud and try to come up with your own examples. Ready?
Conjunctions in English
“Although” is a subordinating conjunction used to connect a subordinate clause to a main clause. It is similar to “in spite of”, “despite”, and “even though”. Examples:
- Although it was raining, they went to the beach. (They went to the beach even though it was raining.)
- Although the sun is up, it’s still freezing. (It should be warm with the sun up, but it isn’t.)
“And” is perhaps the most common coordinating conjunction used to add an idea to another. Examples:
- He speaks Hindi and English. (He speaks both languages.)
- The food is hot and really tasty. (The food is both spicy and delicious.)
“Because” is used to explain the reason why something is happening. For example:
- They’re studying now because they have an important exam tomorrow. (Answers the question, “Why are they studying now?”)
- We didn’t go to the beach because it was raining. (Answer the question, “Why didn’t you go to the beach?”)
“But” is another coordinating conjunction used to oppose the main idea being conveyed. For example:
- She was thirsty, but there was no water nearby. (Although she wanted to drink water, she couldn’t find it.)
- I like your style, but it’s too much for me. (Although your style looks good on you, I wouldn’t feel comfortable wearing the same look.)
“However” works like “but”, usually appearing in or close to the beginning of a sentence. It is a conjunctive adverb used to link an opposing view to the main sentence. Examples:
- Canada is a rich country. However, not all Canadians are rich. (Although Canada is a rich country, not everyone in Canada is rich.)
- She used to love her job. At some point, however, she lost her motivation. (She loved her job before, but now she doesn’t anymore.)
“If” is a subordinating conjunction used to connect two clauses to form a single sentence by presenting the conditional clause. Thus, it expresses the idea of condition. Example:
- If he knew she wanted to go, he would have invited her. (Because he didn’t know she wanted to go, he didn’t invite her.)
“Or” is a coordinating conjunction used to connect two or more possibilities or alternatives. Example:
- Which is your favorite color? Blue or green? (You can only pick one of these two options I’m giving you.)
“Otherwise” is an adverbial conjunction that means the same as “if not” or “or else”. It also connects two independent clauses in one sentence. Example:
- I really like my friends, otherwise I would have quit school. (If I didn’t like my friends, I would have quit school.)
“Since” is used to indicate the starting point or cause of something. For example:
- You can use the Wi-Fi, since you also pay for it. (You can use the Wi-Fi because you help to pay for it.)
- I’ve been thinking about what you said since the last time I saw you. (From the moment you told me that, I couldn’t stop thinking about it.)
And finally, “so” is definitely among the most commonly used conjunctions in English. It indicates continuation or conclusion, like “thus” and “therefore”. Examples:
- He couldn’t speak English, so he didn’t get the job. (If he could speak English, he would have gotten the job.)
- It’s late and you’re probably tired, so I will let you rest. (I will let you rest now because it’s late and you’re tired.)
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