Week106

[Animals ★] Very wooly sheep

[World News ★] Chocolate Expert

[World News ★★] Big Sandcastle in Germany

[Economy ★★] Top 8 Cities Where Pay Goes Furthest (USA)

[Animals ★★] Dog Adopts Piglets

[Health ★★★] Flu vaccine more effective this year; milder season so far

[Sports ★★★] Paralympics Runners Best Olympic Gold Time

[Jobs ★★★] Brown shoes could mean you fail a job interview

[Travel ★★★★] World’s busiest airport? Atlanta takes the title, again

[Health ★★★★] People With Chronic Fatigue May Be Fighting ‘Hibernation’

People With Chronic Fatigue May Be Fighting ‘Hibernation’

[Health ★★★]

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(P1) Chronic fatigue syndrome is a debilitating but still-mysterious ailment often marked by long-term fatigue, pain, and memory loss. But symptoms of CFS, or myalgic encephalomyelitis, vary considerably and no cause has been determined or diagnostic test developed, leading to the widespread notion that patients are dealing with a mental, rather than physical, illness, notes Pacific Standard.

(P2) Now a study out of the University of California at San Diego published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences could change that in a big way. As the Washington Post explains, the research suggests that the bodies of those with CFS have gone into a hibernation of sorts. And while hibernation can be of great benefit to creatures in the wild, it has awful effects in humans.

(P3) The scientists found that those with the syndrome have lower levels of metabolites, defined by PS as “the waste products of chemical reactions inside cells.” The resulting “metabolic signature” was strikingly similar to animals in hibernation mode, suggesting that patients’ cells went into defensive mode to ward off trouble and never quite came out of it. One professor out of Stanford is so impressed by the potential “game changer” that he’s collaborating with other scientists to try to replicate the findings in a larger study. “What they found is that there may be an ancient pathway, and maybe in humans, it’s not working very well,” he tells the Post. It holds the promise of a diagnostic test and treatment in the foreseeable future.

WORDS: 249

SOURCE: http://www.newser.com/story/230715/people-with-chronic-fatigue-may-be-fighting-hibernation.html

VOCABULARY: debilitating, hibernation, metabolites, ward off, game changer, replicate

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Do you ever get fatigued? Why or why not?
  3. What are some other things can be warded off?
  4. In your opinion do you think CFS is a mental or physical illness? Why?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. What is another name for CFS?
  2. Going into hibernation is good for animals and people. (T or F)
  3. Which publication contains research by a university in San Diego, California?
  4. People with CFS have a decreased level of what?
  5. A diagnostic exam and a remedy are possible in the not too distant future. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean

  • often marked (P1)
  • of sorts (P2)
  • strikingly similar (P3)
  • foreseeable future (P3)

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Image source: by “unknown” https://i.ytimg.com/vi/-lYdFb1mwv8/hqdefault.jpg

World’s busiest airport? Atlanta takes the title, again

[Travel ★★★]

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(P1) Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport has nailed down the “World’s Busiest Airport” title for the 18th year in a row.

(P2) That was confirmed Friday when the Airports Council International (ACI) trade group finalized its full-year passenger numbers for 2015. The rankings did not change from ACI’s preliminary 2015 numbers released earlier this year, thus making Atlanta’s No. 1 ranking official.

(P3) Not only did Atlanta hold on to the top ranking, but it also became the first airport in the world to process 100 million passengers in a calendar year. Atlanta’s 2015 passenger count of 101,491,106 was up 5.5% from 2014.

(P4) Also, Atlanta solidified its hold on No. 1 by taking the top spot for “aircraft movements,” another measure of how busy an airport is. “Movements” refers to the number of takeoffs and landings at an airport. Atlanta had briefly lost the title for most movements to Chicago O’Hare in 2014 but surged back past its Illinois rival in 2015.

(P5) While each count is legitimate, the passenger tally is the most traditional barometer for determining the busiest airports.

(P6) Atlanta, of course, is the busiest hub for Delta Air Lines, which operates a massive connecting hub there.

(P7) “Atlanta has benefitted tremendously from its strategic location as a major connecting hub and port of entry into North America,” ACI said in its statement confirming its 2015 passenger counts. “The airport is within a two-hour flight of 80% of the population in the United States.”

(P8) Atlanta had long embraced its role as title-holder for the world’s busiest airport, though it’s recently taken a more cautious approach on the subject. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution notes the airport “earlier this year decided to downplay the ‘world’s busiest’ terminology, changing its tagline to the ‘world’s most traveled airport’.” There apparently was concern that “world’s busiest” mantra wasn’t necessarily the best message for fliers concerned about a smooth and relaxing travel experience.

(P9) As for Atlanta’s runner-up in the passenger count category, China’s Beijing Capital International Airport held down No. 2 spot for the second year in a row.

(P10) Dubai International and Chicago O’Hare made the biggest jumps within the top 10, each rising three spots to Nos. 3 and 4, respectively. Year-over-year passenger traffic grew 10.7% at Dubai and 9.8% at O’Hare.

(P11) Each of those airports passed London Heathrow, which fell three spots to No. 6 from No. 3. Passenger traffic rose at Heathrow, but its 2.2% increase was not enough to keep pace with the larger increases seen at Dubai and O’Hare. Also passing Heathrow was Tokyo’s Haneda, though it also fell (from No. 4 to No. 5).

(P12) Los Angeles and Dallas/Fort Worth gave the United States two more airports in the top 10, coming in at Nos. 7 and 10, respectively.

WORDS: 451

SOURCE: http://www.usatoday.com/story/travel/flights/todayinthesky/2016/09/12/worlds-busiest-airport-atlanta-takes-title-again/90271028/

VOCABULARY: hold on, barometer, hub, downplay, tagline, mantra

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. When you are in an airport, what do you usually do until you board the plane?
  3. In your opinion, do you think airports will get even busier in the next 5 years? Why or why not?
  4. Do you think the title “most traveled airport” is better than “busiest airport”? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. How many consecutive years has the Atlanta airport secured the top spot for the busiest airport worldwide?
  2. Which other title did the Atlanta airport secure?
  3. Which airport came in 2nd place on the busiest airport list?
  4. Which three airports beat the London-based airport, Heathrow?
  5. No other USA based airports made the list of the 10 busiest airports. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean

  • nailed down (P1)
  • in a calendar year (P3)
  • surged back (P4)
  • year-over-year (P10)
  • to keep pace (P11)

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Image source: by AP http://www.cbs46.com/story/29713090/firefighters-to-simulate-fire-at-hartsfield-jackson

Brown shoes could mean you fail a job interview

[Jobs ★★★]

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(P1) People who want to be investment bankers in London could be disappointed if they wear brown shoes. A report shows the investment banking industry follows old rules about how bankers should behave. Researchers found that the industry followed unclear codes of conduct. They wrote: “For men, the wearing of brown shoes with a business suit is generally considered unacceptable within investment banking.”

(P2) The report suggested that working class people had to change their behavior to fit in. One banker said: “I felt like my accent was a bit out of place, so I changed it.” The study said the industry discriminated against those who did not go to elite universities. It said: “Bright, working-class kids are being systematically locked out of top jobs. It is shocking that some still judge candidates on whether they wear brown shoes rather than on their skills.”

WORDS: 142

SOURCE: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/1609/160906-job-interview-4.html

VOCABULARY: unclear, fit in, accent, discriminated, elite, working-class

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Would you like to work in the banking industry? Why or why not?
  3. Are old rules still followed in your country? If so, describe one of the old rules.
  4. In your opinion, do you think brown shoes are unprofessional? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. Which city is mentioned in the article?
  2. According to the article, wearing brown shoes with a business suit is totally not acceptable in the banking industry. (T or F)
  3. Upper-class people also have to change the way they act to be accepted. (T or F)
  4. If you went to a prestigious university, you were more likely to get a job in the banking industry. (T or F)
  5. According to the study, which social class finds it difficult to be hired for higher up positions?

 

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • follows old rules (P1)
  • within investment banking (P1)
  • a bit out of place (P2)
  • locked out (P2)

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Image source: by “unknown” https://howtomakeaman.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/brown-shoes_gray-suit.jpg

Paralympics Runners Best Olympic Gold Time

[Sports ★★★]

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(P1) Four visually impaired runners in the 1500 meters at the Rio Paralympics Games just earned some bragging rights: All put up times better than the US runner who took gold in the same Olympics competition, reports the Independent. Their times ranged from 3:48.29 (by gold medal winner Abdellatif Baka of Algeria) to 3:49.84 by fourth-place finisher Fouad Baka, also of Algeria. All were better than the time of 3:50 put up by American Matthew Centrowitz at the Summer Olympics. And, no, the Paralympians did not use any artificial aids. But as Chris Chase at Fox Sports explains, some other variables help explain what’s going on.

(P2) Long-distance races such as the 1500 meters aren’t just brute tests of speed from start to finish and instead often come down to tactics, he writes. In the Centrowitz race, for example, no runner leaped ahead to push the pace. In such races, “the group can be content to stay together until kicking it into gear in the final 500m,” he writes, and that’s exactly what happened. In fact, Centrowitz ran 11 seconds faster in an earlier round. No matter the rationale, however, these four Paralympians can still boast about being faster than their Olympics counterparts in their final heat.

WORDS: 205

SOURCE: http://www.newser.com/story/231032/4-paralympics-runners-best-olympic-gold-time.html

VOCABULARY: impaired, Paralympics, put up, going on, brute, rationale, boast

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. What do you think of the four Paralympians competing with disabilities?
  3. Have you ever won a competition? If so, tell me about it. If not, would you like to?
  4. Do you think it’s difficult to run 1500 meters? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. Where were the Paralympics held?
  2. Who came in first place in the 1500 meter at the Paralympics?
  3. Long races are just a test of how strong a runner is. (T or F)
  4. How fast did the Summer Olympic gold medal winner run in the 1500 meters?
  5. Who was faster in the final race, the four Paralympians or their counterpart in the Summer Olympics?

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • bragging rights (P1)
  • ranged from (P1)
  • artificial aids (P1)
  • leaped ahead to push the pace (P2)
  • until kicking it into gear (P2)

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Image source: by Bob Martin/OIS,IOC via AP http://www.newser.com/story/231032/4-paralympics-runners-best-olympic-gold-time.html

Flu vaccine more effective this year; milder season so far

[Health ★★★]

flu

(P1) The flu vaccine is doing a better job this year.

(P2) Preliminary data suggest it is 59 percent effective. That’s a big improvement from last winter’s nasty flu season when the vaccine was less than 20 percent effective.

(P3) Unlike last year’s vaccine, this year’s is a good match to the strains making people sick.

(P4) It’s been a milder flu season so far, though health officials said it has not yet peaked.

(P5) The numbers were presented Wednesday at a meeting in Atlanta of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, which gives advice on vaccine use to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

(P6) The committee also amended its flu vaccine guidance for people with egg allergies, saying research has shown it’s OK for them to get the nasal spray version made from live virus grown in eggs.

(P7) The panel also said doctors no longer need to watch those with egg allergies for a half hour after a vaccination. But those who’ve had severe reactions should get vaccinated in a doctor’s office or medical setting.

WORDS: 172

SOURCE: http://www.koreatimesus.com/flu-vaccine-more-effective-this-year-milder-season-so-far/

VOCABULARY: preliminary, nasty, strains, amended, nasal, panel

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Do you get the flu vaccine every year? Why or why not?
  3. In your opinion, will there ever be a cure for the flu? Why or why not?
  4. Do you have any allergies or know somebody with allergies? If so, who and what allergies?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. So far, how effective is this year’s vaccine for the flu?
  2. The previous year’s vaccine was a good match but was just less effective. (T or F)
  3. Who gives suggestions to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention?
  4. Which type of vaccine was approved for people allergic to eggs?
  5. Doctors still need to observe people with egg allergies for at least 30 minutes. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • not yet peaked (P4)
  • the numbers were presented (P5)
  • with egg allergies (P6)
  • severe reactions (P7)

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Image source: by AP Photo/Patrick Sison http://www.koreatimesus.com/flu-vaccine-more-effective-this-year-milder-season-so-far/

Dog Adopts Piglets

[Animals ★★]

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(P1) In Cuba, a pig gave birth to a litter of piglets but died afterward. A man collected the piglets and brought them home.

(P2) He put the piglets together with his dog, who was feeding her pups. He wanted to see if the dog would accept the piglets. On the first day, she was a little hesitant, but then she ended up giving them milk. She now feeds her own babies as well as the adoptive ones.

(P3) The dog is now something of a local attraction in the Cuban town.

WORDS: 89

SOURCE: http://www.newsinlevels.com/products/dog-adopts-piglets-level-2/

VOCABULARY: piglets, afterward, collected, pups, hesitant, adoptive

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

If you found the passage difficult to read or had problems understanding specific words or idiomatic expressions, please discuss them with your tutor. The following discussion questions should be answered in your own words and with your own arguments.

  1. Briefly, summarize the content of the article in your own words.
  2. Do you like dogs? Why or why not?
  3. What are some animals that are in your country?
  4. Do you think it’s strange that the dog accepted the piglets? Why or why not?

READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS:

  1. How many piglets were born to the pig?
  2. The dog has 5 pups. (T or F)
  3. What did the dog give the little pigs?
  4. Now the dog only gives milk to her pups. (T or F)
  5. People go to the city to see the dog. (T or F)

EXPRESSIONS or PHRASES:

What do the following expressions or phrases mean?

  • litter of piglets (P1)
  • if the dog would accept the piglets (P2)
  • ended up (P2)
  • something of a local attraction (P3)

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Image source: By Giang Ho Thi Hoang, https://www.flickr.com/photos/hthg1983/1519121063